O conceito de ideologia no marxismo clássico: uma revisão e um modelo de aplicação
The Concept of Ideology in Classical Marxism: A Review and an Application Model
Política & Sociedade, v. 15 n. 32 2016
The purpose of this essay is to unveil some operational aspects of the theoretical notion of "ideology" as conceived by the Marxist tradition in order to emphasize its usefulness in social analysis. The argument to be defended here is that, either updated or not according to academic fashions, this term still works properly as long as it is understood in its full meaning. I then show how the transfiguration of the concept’s meaning (from a negative to a positive sense) and the reality it describes (from a purely mental phenomenon to a material structure) allows us to understand ideological practice as social practice, and how all this comes caught up by the notion of "tradition” as conceived by Marx and Engels. Then, I enumerate some theoretical and methodological requirements to produce a map of ideologies in a particular social formation. This map should serve not only to describe the topology of a given ideological field, but also to demonstrate how, when and why a particular ideology became the official ideology and its discourse, the dominant discourse.
Keywords: ideology, Marxism, ruling ideologies, social theory, social analysis.